بررسی تطبیقی نقشه‌های اقلیمی ایران در طبقه‌بندی دمارتن گسترش داده شده و کاربست روش برای پهنه‌بندی اقلیم جهان

نوع مقاله : یادداشت تحقیقاتی

نویسندگان

1 استاد دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشیار گروه مهندسی آبیاری و آبادانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشکدگان کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی کرج، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

3 دانشجوی دکتری هواشناسی کشاورزی، گروه مهندسی آبیاری و آبادانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشکدگان کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی کرج، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

طبقه‌بندی اقلیمی دمارتن از نسل اول طبقه‌بندی‌هایی است که عموماً با هدف ارزیابی بوم‌شناختی گیاهی تدوین شده و درجه خشکی مناطق در رابطه با پوشش نباتی طبیعی آن‌ها را ارزیابی می‌کنند. به ‌منظور افزایش کارایی این طبقه‌بندی در هویت‌یابی اقلیمی مناطق مختلف به‌خصوص در عرض‌های میانی نظیر ایران دو گسترش بر آن اعمال شده است. نخست، باز-تعریف طبقه خشک به دو زیر-اقلیم مجزا به ‌منظور تطابق بیشتر با جغرافیای پوشش‌نباتی و دیگری گسترش طبقات اقلیمی بر پایه میانگین دمای حداقل روزانه در سردترین ماه سال که نقشی اساسی در بوم‌سازگان گیاهی نواحی مختلف دارد. بررسی تطبیقی مطالعات صورت گرفته با طبقه‌بندی دمارتن گسترش داده شده و نقشه‌های اقلیمی آن‌ها در گستره ایران نشان داد که تفاوت‌ها بیش از آنکه ناشی از اختلاف دوره‌های اقلیمی باشد در درجه اول معلول تراکم شبکه ایستگاه‌ها و پراکندگی آن‌ها است. کاربست طبقه‌بندی دمارتن گسترش داده شده در سطح جهان مبتنی بر پایگاه داده CRU نشان داد که با تعریف طبقه اقلیمی قطبی برای مناطقی که متوسط دمای سالانه آن‌ها برابر یا کوچکتر از (°C) 10- است، می‌توان این شاخص را در سطح جهانی مورد استفاده قرار داد. افزون بر این در مناطقی که میانگین سالانه دما در آن‌ها در بازه 5- تا (°C) 10- قرار دارد و 5/8 درصد خشکی‌های جهان را پوشش می‌دهد ویژگی‌هایی شبیه مناطق قطبی را دارند که در این مقاله به آن پرداخته شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Comparative study on climate maps of Iran in extended de Martonne classification and application of the method for world climate zoning

نویسندگان [English]

  • A. Khalili 1
  • J. Bazrafshan 2
  • M. Cheraghalizadeh 3
1 Professor, University of Tehran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Irrigation and Reclamation Engineering, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
3 Doctoral student of agricultural meteorology, Department of Irrigation and Reclamation Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

De Martonne climate classification is one of the first generation of classifications that are mainly aimed to assess plant ecology and the degree of aridity of areas in relation to their natural vegetation. This classification is quantitative and its climatic ranks are defined based on the values of the aridity index  (P is average annual precipitation in mm and T is average annual temperature in °C). In order to increase its efficiency in climatic identification of different regions, especially those located in the middle latitudes such as Iran two extensions have been applied to this classification (Khalili 1988): 1) due to recognizable difference that can be seen in the vegetation geography of the arid zone areas, its climate , was divided into two sub-climates named Extra-arid and Arid desert climate; 2): Due to the importance of the role of winter temperatures in the plant ecosystem, each climate class was divided into four sub-climates: very -cold, cold, moderate and warm based on the average minimum daily temperature in the coldest month of the year (m) .The article states that the two parameters (T) and (m) can represent the annual temperature regime, and for this reason, the (m) parameter increases the classification accuracy. The thresholds (a) and (m) of this classification are presented in Table 1 in the main text. A comparative study of the researches carried out for the preparation of two climate maps of Iran in the E.D.C. showed that the differences are primarily due to the density of the network of stations and their dispersion rather than the difference in climatic periods. In this article, an attempt has been made to classify the climate of the world in the Extended de Martonne system. The aridity index is indeterminate or meaningless in areas where the average annual temperature is equal to or less than -10 °C, so their climate cannot be defined in E.D.C.. Because there is such a situation in the arctic as well as in the high latitudes, their climate was named " polar" which covers 15% of the world's land .In addition, it has been shown that the (a) index does not provide an accurate assessment of the aridity of the environment in areas where the average annual temperature is in the range of -5 to -10°C. The climate of these regions was called quasi-polar, which is discussed in this article. About 8.5% of the world's landmasses have this feature.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Extended de Martonne Classification
  • Iran
  • Word climates map
  • Aridity Index
  • Climate maps comparison
  • Climatic classification
  • Polar climate
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