زمان مناسب آبیاری تکمیلی درختان انجیر دیم با اندازه‌گیری دمای برگ، رطوبت خاک و داده های هواشناسی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار پژوهشی، بخش تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی فارس، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج

2 استادیار پژوهشی، ایستگاه تحقیقات انجیر، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی فارس، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی،

چکیده

این تحقیق با هدف تعیین زمان مناسب آبیاری درختان انجیر دیم استهبان فارس به کمک داده‌های هواشناسی انجام گرفت. به دلیل کاهش ریزش‌های جوی در سال‌های اخیر، باغ‌های این منطقه با کمبود آب مواجه بوده و انجام آبیاری تکمیلی به منظور حفظ درختان ضروری به-نظر می‌رسد. در تحقیق حاضر طی طول دو سال، سطوح مختلف شاخص تنش‌ آبی گیاه (CWSI) به درختان انجیر دیم اعمال و رطوبت خاک در زمان‌های معین اندازه‌گیری گردید. بدین منظور دمای تاج پوشش گیاه، دمای هوا و کمبود فشار بخار در زمان‌های مختلف اندازه گیری و زمان بروز تنش آبی تعیین شد. تیمارهای این مطالعه شامل یک تیمار شاهد (بدون آبیاری) و انجام آبیاری در شاخصهای تنش آبی 0، 2/0، 4/0، 6/0 ، 8/0 بودند به نحوی در زمان آبیاری که تنش آبی از حد تعیین شده بیشتر نشود. آبیاری به روش معمول منطقه یعنی با تانکر انجام گرفت. نتایج این بررسی نشان داد که حداکثرتنش وارد شده به درختان انجیر در شاخص تنش آبی6/0 بوده که در اوایل مردادماه اتفاق افتاد و رطوبت خاک در این شرایط 12 درصد بود. در زمان شروع دوره تنش آبی در فصل بهار، رطوبت خاک 14 درصد تعیین شد معادلاتی برای تخمین زمان شروع تنش آبی با توجه به بارندگی و تبخیر ارائه گردید که با استفاده از آنها می‌توان زمان ایجاد تنش و آبیاری تکمیلی را تعیین نمود. معادلاتی نیز برای ارتباط میزان محصول تولیدی با میزان آب دریافتی درختان انجیر ارائه گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The appropriate time for supplemental irrigation of rainfed fig trees by measuring leaf temperature, soil moisture and meteorological data

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Ali Shahrokhnia 1
  • Hamid Zare 2
1 Associate professor (ph.D.), Agricultural Engineering Research Department, Fars Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Shiraz, Iran
2 Assistant professor (ph.D.), Fig Research Station, Fars Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Estahban, Iran
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to determine the appropriate time for supplementary irrigation rainfed fig trees in Estahban region, Fars province south of Iran using canopy and meteorological data. In a 2-year experiment, different water stresse levels were applied to rainfed Fig trees and soil moisture was measured at different time intervals. For determination of supplementary irrigation timing based on crop water stress index, soil moisture, the air and plant canopy temperature, were measured. The experiment treatments consisted of a control (without irrigation) and supplementary irrigation at water stress index of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8. In each treatment, irrigation was applied at a time when the water stress was just above the selected threshold. Trees were irrigated by tanker as the concentional method in this region. The results of the study showed that the maximum stress occurred in stress index of 0.6 in late July when the soil moisture was about 12%. In spring, the beginning of water stress period, was observed at soil moisture of 14%. Simple equations for predicting the onset of water stress with respect to rainfall and evaporation are presented, which can be used to determine the time of supplementary irrigation. َA set of the water–yield relationships were also proposed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Rainfall
  • soil moisture
  • Drought
  • irrigation
  • Evaporation
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