(مقاله علمی پژوهشی) اثرگذاری مدیریت کلش شالیزار بر گسیل گازهای گلخانه‌ای متان و دی‌اکسید کربن در کشت دوم برنج (پژوهش موردی: ساری)
20.1001.1.23453419.1399.8.2.5.7

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد هواشناسی کشاورزی، گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

2 استاد، گروه مهندسی آب، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

3 مربی، گروه مهندسی آب، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

چکیده

گرمایش جهانی در پی افزایش گازهای گلخانه ای به تغییرات پیوسته و شگرف اقلیمی می انجامد. گاز متان در فرآیند های بی هوازی درون خاک، مانند شالیزارها می تواند تولید شود. پس در بخش کشاورزی کشت غرقابی برنج یکی از چشمه های اصلی گسیل این گاز می باشد. از ‌سویی سوزاندن کاه  و  کلش برنج حجم کلانی دی اکسیدکربن وارد نیوار می کند. در این راستا پژوهشی با چهار تیمار آزمایشی: (a) تیمار بدون کلش (شاهد)، (b) تیمار کلش درآمیخته با خاک، (c) تیمار سوزاندن کلش بازمانده از کشت پیش، و (d) تیمار سوزاندن کلش خشک شده بازمانده  از کشت پیش. این پژوهش در مزرعه آزمایشی دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبعی ساری انجام شد. نمونه برداری گاز متان در بازه زمانی ده روزه و نمونه برداری گاز دی اکسیدکربن یک روز پس از سوزاندن کلش‌ها و سپس در سه مرحله، در کشت دوم انجام گرفت. سرانجام برای مقایسه ی اثرگذاری تیمارها بر گرمایش جهانی، معادل دی اکسیدکربنِ گاز متان محاسبه شد. یافته ها نشانگر آن بود که بیشترین گسیل گاز متان از تیمار کلش درآمیخته با خاک (mg/m2.day 75/6) و کمترین میزان گسیل از تیمار بدون کلش (mg/m2.day 97/2) و تیمار سوزاندن کلش خشک (mg/m2.day 62/2) بود. همچنین بررسی نتایج مربوط به گسیل دی اکسیدکربن در درازای فصل کشت دوم نشان داد، بیشترین میزان در تیمار سوزاندن کلش مرطوب با میانگین  mg/m2.day 93/133 و کمترین میزان گسیل نیز در تیمار سوزاندن کلش خشک (mg/m2.day 08/67) دیده شد. در پایان یافته های به دست آمده از بررسی مجموع گازهای گلخانه ای اندازه گیری شده در کل دوره نشان داد تیمار سوزاندن کلش مرطوب و خشک می تواند نزدیک به 8 بار بیش از تیمار شاهد بر روند افزایشی گرمایش جهانی اثرگذار باشد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Influence of rice straw management on methane and carbon dioxide greenhouse gases emissions during the second rice cropping (Case study: Sari, Iran)

نویسندگان [English]

  • H. Baziyarpour 1
  • M. Raeini-Sarjaz 2
  • S. Shiukhy Sughanlu 3
1 M.Sc. Graduate of Agrometeorology, Department of Water Engineering, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Iran.
2 Professor of Agrometeorology, Department of Water Engineering, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Iran.
3 Instructor of Agrometeorology, Department of Water Engineering, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Global warming is leading to gradual and tremendous climate change following the increase in greenhouse gases. Methane gas can be produced in anaerobic processes in soil, such as paddy fields. Therefore, in the agricultural sector, waterlogged rice cultivation is one of the main sources of this methane gas emissions. On the other hand, straw burning brings a huge amount of pollutants to the atmospher. In this regard, a study with four experimental treatments was conducted: (a) without straw (control), (b) rice straws incorporated into the soil,  (c) burned rice straws left in the field, and finally (d) burned air-dried rice straws left from first cropping harvest. The experiment was carried out on the experimental field of Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University. Methane gas sampling was performed at 10- day intervals and carbon dioxide gas sampling was performed one day after straw burning and then in three stages in the second cropping season. Finally, in order to compare the treatments in terms of methane and carbon dioxide emissions, the carbon dioxide equivalent of methane gas was calculated.The findings showed that the highest methane emission was from rice straws incorporated into the soil (6.75 mg/m2.day) and the lowest emissions were from the control treatment (2.97 mg/m2.day) ) and burned rice straws air-dried after harvest (2.62 mg/m2.day). Also, the results of carbon dioxide emissions during the second cropping season showed that the highest amount was from burned rice straws left in the field treatments (133.93 mg/m2.day) and the lowest amount was observed from burned rice straws air-dried after harvest (67.08 mg/m2.day). Finally the results of the total greenhouse gas emissions measured in the whole period showed that wet and dry straws burned treatments could have the potential to increase global warming almost 8 times more than the control treatment.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Anaerobic Process
  • atmosphere
  • Global warming
  • Straw burning
  • Waterlogging
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