ارزیابی مدل برف واسنجی شده طرحواره سطح NOAH-MP جفت شده در مدل WRF با تصاویر سنجنده مودیس در نواحی با ویژگی‌های متفاوت سطح

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه علوم و مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه فیزیک فضا، موسسه ژئوفیزیک، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

پوشش برف اثر قابل توجهی در کشاورزی، منابع آب و اقلیم دارد و به دلیل تغییرات شدید مکانی و زمانی از مهم‌ترین مؤلفه‌ها در طرحواره‌های سطح است. مدل برف طرحواره سطح NOAHMP جفت شده در مدل WRF با فاکتور ذوب برف واسنجی شده با تصاویر روزانه کسر پوشش برف سنجنده مودیس ماهواره ترا در بارش‌های سنگین برف در سال‌های 2013 و 2014 ارزیابی شده است. منطقه مورد مطالعه که شامل استان‌های غربی (همدان و کردستان) و استان‌های شمالی (اردبیل، گیلان و مازندران) است به نواحی جنگلی، مرتع، پست و کم‌ارتفاع و کوهستانی دارای شیب کم و زیاد تقسیم شد. مدل ضعیف‌ترین (بهترین) عملکرد در برآورد کسر پوشش برف (کمینه دمای هوا) را با بیش‌ترین (کم‌ترین) میانگین مربعات خطاهای نرمال شده و انحراف معیار نرمال شده بیش‌تر از (نزدیک به) یک دارد. مدل عدم قطعیت بالایی در برآورد کسر پوشش برف و ارتفاع برف در نواحی دارای توپوگرافی پیچیده (با ضریب کارایی بسیار کوچک مثبت، 01/0) و نواحی دارای ناهمگنی سطح (نواحی مرتع و جنگلی با ضرایب کارایی منفی و خطاهای بزرگ) دارد. بهترین عملکرد مدل در برآورد کسر پوشش برف و ارتفاع برف در نواحی پست و کم ارتفاع با بالاترین ضرایب کارایی (به ترتیب 71/0 و 40/0) و کوچک‌ترین میانگین مطلق خطا (به ترتیب 8 و cm4/6) است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of the calibrated snow model of the NOAH-MP land surface scheme coupled in the WRF using MODIS images in areas with different land-surface features

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehraneh Khodamoradpour 1
  • Parviz Irannejad 2
1 Assistant Professor of the Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Space Physics, Institute of Geophysics, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Snow cover has a significant effect on agriculture, water resources and climate, and it is one of the most important components of land-surface schemes due to its high spatial and temporal variations. The snow model of the NOAHMP land-surface scheme coupled in the WRF model is evaluated with the calibrated snow melting factor by the Tera satellite’s daily MODIS images of snow cover fraction during the heavy snowfalls in 2013 and 2014. The study area including western provinces (Hamedan and Kurdistan) and northern provinces (Ardebil, Gilan, and Mazandaran) of Iran is divided into forests, rangelands, lowlands, and mountainous areas with low and high slopes. The model has the weakest (best) performance in estimating snow cover fraction (minimum air temperature) with highest (lowest) normalized root mean square error and normalized standard deviation greater than (close to) one. The model has high uncertainty in estimating the snow cover fraction and snow depth in the regions with complex topography (with a very small positive efficiency coefficient, 0.01) and heterogeneous areas (rangelands and forests with a negative efficiency coefficient and large errors). The model has the best performance in estimating the snow cover fraction and snow depth in the lowlands with the highest efficiency coefficients (0.71 and 0.40, respectively) and the lowest mean absolute error (8 and 6.4 cm respectively).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • NOAHMP Land Surface Scheme
  • snow cover fraction
  • WRF Model
  • MODIS images
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